Leg Ulcer Treatment and Common Causes?


Leg ulcers can be a concerning and challenging condition to manage. In this informative blog post, we will explore what leg ulcers are, their connection to vascular health, and the common causes behind them. Understanding the fundamentals of leg ulcers is crucial for effective treatment and when to seek vascular care. Let's delve into this topic and shed light on leg ulcers and their relationship with vascular health.

What is a Leg Ulcer?

A leg ulcer refers to a chronic sore that takes a significant amount of time to heal. It typically occurs on the lower leg or foot and is often a manifestation of underlying medical conditions. These conditions can affect the veins, lymphatic system, or arterial circulation, leading to impaired healing and the development of ulcers. Leg ulcers can significantly impact a person's quality of life and require proper management for optimal outcomes.

Common Causes of Leg Ulcers

Common Causes of Leg Ulcers

Venous Disease

Faulty valves in the leg veins that disrupt blood flow, leading to venous insufficiency.

Venous ulcers commonly occur near the ankles and are characterized by slow-healing, painful wounds.

  • Lymphedema

    A condition where the lymphatic system fails to drain fluid properly, causing swelling and tissue damage. Lymphedema-related ulcers are typically found in areas affected by fluid accumulation, such as the legs.
  • Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

    Formation of blood clots in the deep veins, obstructing normal blood flow.

    If left untreated, DVT can lead to severe complications, including the development of leg ulcers.
  • Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD)

    Narrowing or blockage of arteries in the legs, reducing blood flow to the tissues.

    PAD-related ulcers often occur on the toes, heels, or lower limbs and may exhibit severe pain.

Previous Ulcers or Trauma:

A history of previous leg ulcers or any injury that compromises the skin's integrity can increase the risk of recurring ulcers.

Trauma-induced ulcers may result from burns, cuts, or surgical wounds that do not heal adequately.

Understanding the connection between these medical conditions and leg ulcers is crucial in addressing the underlying causes and implementing effective treatment strategies. A comprehensive evaluation by a healthcare professional is essential to determine the precise cause of the leg ulcer and tailor the treatment accordingly.

Leg ulcers are chronic sores that require careful management and treatment. By understanding the underlying causes related to vascular health, individuals and healthcare providers can take appropriate measures to address the condition.

Early diagnosis, proper wound care, and targeted treatment approaches are key to promoting healing and preventing complications. If you or someone you know is dealing with leg ulcers, seeking medical attention and guidance is crucial for a successful outcome. Remember, effective management of leg ulcers not only enhances healing but also improves overall well-being.

Types of Leg Ulcers

Venous Ulcers

Venous ulcers are the most common type of leg ulcers, accounting for approximately 70-90% of cases. They are typically a consequence of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI), which occurs when the valves in the leg veins are damaged or weakened, leading to impaired blood flow. Venous ulcers usually develop around the inner side of the lower leg, above the ankle. 

Their characteristics include:

  • Shallow, irregularly shaped wounds
  • Red or yellowish base
  • Swollen and discolored skin around the ulcer
  • Itching or pain in the affected area
  • Weeping of fluid from the ulcer
  • Worsening symptoms after prolonged standing or sitting

Arterial Ulcers

Arterial ulcers result from inadequate arterial blood supply to the legs and are commonly associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or arterial insufficiency. PAD occurs when there is a buildup of plaque in the arteries, causing narrowing and reduced blood flow. Arterial ulcers typically develop on the feet, toes, or areas exposed to pressure or trauma.

Their characteristics include:

  • Deep, punched-out wounds
  • Pale or necrotic (black) base
  • Surrounding skin may appear thin, shiny, and cool to the touch
  • Severe pain, especially when elevating the legs
  • Delayed wound healing and slow or absent pulse in the affected area

Neuropathic Ulcers

Neuropathic ulcers, also known as diabetic foot ulcers, occur in individuals with diabetes. Diabetes-related nerve damage (neuropathy) and reduced blood flow increase the risk of developing these ulcers. They often form on pressure points, such as the ball of the foot or heel. 

The characteristics of neuropathic ulcers include:

  • Superficial, round or oval-shaped wounds
  • Callused or thickened skin around the ulcer
  • Little to no pain, due to nerve damage
  • Risk of infection and slow-healing due to compromised blood flow
  • Commonly accompanied by signs of diabetic neuropathy, such as tingling or numbness in the feet

Mixed Ulcers

Mixed ulcers refer to ulcers that have characteristics of both venous and arterial ulcers. They occur when a patient has underlying venous insufficiency and concomitant arterial disease, leading to a combination of venous stasis and arterial insufficiency. Mixed ulcers may present with a combination of features seen in both venous and arterial ulcers.

It's essential to note that accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for managing leg ulcers effectively. If you suspect you have a leg ulcer or have been diagnosed with one, consult with a healthcare professional, such as a vascular specialist or wound care specialist, for an evaluation and personalized care plan.

Diagnosing Leg Ulcers: Understanding the Symptoms and Seeking Proper Evaluation

Leg ulcers can be a distressing and persistent condition that requires proper diagnosis and treatment. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms such as swollen ankles, discolored skin, hardened skin, varicose eczema, open sores, or a foul-smelling discharge, it's essential to seek medical attention for an accurate diagnosis. In this article, we will explore the symptoms and characteristics of leg ulcers, emphasize the importance of consulting a doctor or specialist, and delve into the diagnostic method known as a Doppler study.

Recognizing the Symptoms of Leg Ulcers

Leg ulcers manifest through various symptoms that may indicate the presence of an underlying problem. These symptoms include:

The accumulation of fluid in the ankles can lead to noticeable swelling and discomfort.

The skin surrounding the ulcer may appear discolored and darkened. This change in pigmentation is a common characteristic of leg ulcers.

The affected area may develop hardened skin, giving the leg a firm texture and making it feel rigid.

Itchy, flaky skin, often referred to as varicose eczema, is another sign of leg ulcers. This condition can cause discomfort and irritation.

Leg ulcers typically present as open sores on the leg that are difficult to heal. These sores can be painful and may weep fluid or pus.

In some cases, leg ulcers may produce a foul-smelling discharge, indicating the presence of infection or other complications.

Consulting a Doctor for an Accurate Diagnosis

If you notice any of these symptoms, it's crucial to consult a doctor or specialist for a proper diagnosis. While self-assessment can provide some insight, a healthcare professional's expertise is essential in determining the underlying cause of the leg ulcers. They will consider your medical history, conduct a physical examination, and may order additional tests to pinpoint the exact cause.

Understanding the Doppler Study

One of the diagnostic methods commonly used to evaluate leg ulcers is a Doppler study. This study focuses on assessing the blood flow in the arteries and veins of the legs. By employing an ultrasound probe, the healthcare professional can visualize and analyze the blood flow patterns, identify any abnormalities or blockages, and determine the underlying cause of the ulcers.

In some cases, your doctor may perform ankle and arm blood pressure readings to compare the blood flow in different areas. This comparison helps in assessing arterial disease and its impact on leg ulcers.

The Significance of Proper Diagnosis

Obtaining a proper diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment and management of leg ulcers. With an accurate diagnosis, healthcare professionals can tailor the treatment plan to address the underlying cause, whether it's venous disease, arterial insufficiency, or another contributing factor. This targeted approach improves the chances of successful healing and reduces the risk of complications.

Remember, self-diagnosis is not advisable when dealing with leg ulcers. Seek professional medical guidance to ensure you receive the appropriate care and support for your specific condition.

Leg ulcers can be a complex condition with various underlying causes. Recognizing the symptoms, consulting a doctor or specialist, and undergoing a Doppler study are essential steps in the diagnostic process. By seeking timely and accurate diagnosis, you pave the way for proper treatment and improved outcomes. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of leg ulcers, don't hesitate to seek medical attention and take the first step toward healing and recovery.

Factors Contributing to Non-Healing Ulcers

Underlying Vascular Disorders

Underlying Vascular Disorders

Chronic leg ulcers often result from vascular conditions such as chronic venous insufficiency, arterial insufficiency, or a combination of both. Inadequate blood supply to the affected area hinders proper healing, making these ulcers resistant to treatment.



Infection is a common complication in leg ulcers, particularly when the wound is not adequately cleaned, dressed, or managed. Bacterial or fungal infections can delay healing and contribute to the chronicity of the ulcer.

Poor Circulation and Oxygenation

Poor Circulation and Oxygenation

Reduced blood flow and oxygen supply to the ulcer site can impair tissue repair and regeneration. Conditions like peripheral arterial disease or microvascular dysfunction can contribute to poor circulation, hindering the healing process.

Underlying Medical Conditions

Underlying Medical Conditions

Certain systemic conditions, such as diabetes, autoimmune disorders, or metabolic disorders, can significantly impact wound healing. These conditions may impair the body's ability to generate new tissue and fight infections, prolonging the healing time.

Lifestyle Factors

Lifestyle Factors

Unhealthy lifestyle choices, including smoking, poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, and obesity, can negatively affect wound healing. Addressing these factors and making positive lifestyle changes can enhance the chances of healing in non-healing ulcers.

Think you may have non-healing ulcers?


Treatment Approaches for Non-Healing Ulcers

  • Advanced Wound Care
    Specialized wound dressings, such as hydrocolloids, foam dressings, or antimicrobial dressings, can aid in creating an optimal wound environment for healing. These dressings promote moisture balance, remove necrotic tissue, and provide a barrier against infection.
  • Dressing

    You should change the dressing on your ulcer as instructed by your doctor or wound care specialist.  You should thoroughly clean it before re-dressing the wound. Frequent cleaning and dressing will prevent infection and allow for your leg ulcer to heal. Be sure to use a non-sticky dressing.
    While this process is relatively straightforward, it is best to change your dressing under the supervision of your nurse.
  • Transparent Dressing
    This is a clear, plastic-like dressing that you apply over your sore. You should also wear a stocking with a transparent dressing to keep it in place and improve your leg and foot circulation.
  • Hydrocolloid Dressing
    This special bandage has a breathable outer layer to prevent infection and an inner layer that absorbs drainage from your leg ulcer to promote healing. Hydrocolloid dressings also remove dead skin and tissue.
  • Shave Therapy
    Shave therapy involves removing dead or non-healing tissue and then skin grafting. A surgeon will shave down 0.3 to 0.4 mm of non-healing skin and tissue and then use a skin grafting machine to graft skin of the same thickness (usually from the affected leg) to the area they are working on.
    Your doctor or specialist will review your ulcer and history to determine if shave therapy is right for you.
  • Debridement
    This type of surgery removes dead, damaged, or infected tissue from your leg ulcer to help the remaining tissue heal. A surgeon will use a scalpel not only to remove tissue but also to determine the depth of the sore and remove any foreign objects that may be lodged in your leg.

    Less invasive debridement involves applying gel or hydrocolloid dressings to your sore to remove damaged tissue by the medication.

    There are benefits to having surgery done as part of your leg ulcer treatment. Surgery can stimulate the edge of the wound to begin healing and reduce inflammation. It also removes dead skin and tissue, preventing infections that could eventually lead to amputation.
  • Treating an Infected Ulcer
    If your ulcer becomes infected, you may have to treat it with antibiotics and topical creams. If the infection becomes more chronic or severe, you may need surgery. Properly cleaning and dressing your ulcer may prevent it from becoming infected.
  • Compression Therapy
    Compression bandages or stockings help improve blood circulation, reduce swelling, and promote venous return in cases of venous ulcers. This approach aids in managing underlying vascular insufficiencies and supports the healing process.

    Unlike a regular Ace wrap, a compression bandage is made with a stretchy, elastic fabric that applies pressure to healing areas like legs. Compression bandages work to improve blood flow in the veins, prevent blood clots, and reduce fluid buildup in your leg.

    Your doctor or specialist will typically recommend a short compression bandage and stockings for a leg ulcer. These bandages do not increase pressure when you are resting, so some doctors recommend you sleep in them while healing. Although sleeping in compression bandages is not always recommended, so be sure to check with your doctor first.

    Your doctor, specialist, or nurse will apply compression bandages to your affected leg. This is a skilled procedure that is best performed by a specialist. It is essential to know that compression bandages are painful when first applied to a leg ulcer, but should dissipate after a week to a week and a half. If it does not, let your doctor know so they can determine if there is a need to cut off your compression bandage.

    Let your doctor know if you experience any of the following.
    • Extreme pain in your ankle
    • Extreme pain at the top of your foot
    • Discoloration and swelling of your toes
    If you cut your compression bandage off yourself, make sure to keep your leg elevated until you can see a doctor again.

Minimally-invasive procedure

In some cases, a procedure may be necessary to address underlying vascular issues or remove non-viable tissue.Procedures such as debridement, skin grafting, or revascularization techniques can be considered to enhance healing. The physician may also perform a venogram, and place a venous stent to open the vein and improve blood circulation to non-healing ulcer. 

A venogram is a diagnostic procedure that uses contrast dye and X-rays to visualize the veins and identify any blockages or abnormalities. If a venous blockage is detected and determined to be contributing to the non-healing ulcer, the physician may recommend venous stenting.

Venous stenting involves placing a small, expandable metal tube called a stent inside the affected vein to improve blood flow. The stent helps keep the vein open and allows for better circulation, which can promote healing in the ulcer. This procedure is performed under local anesthesia, and the stent remains in place permanently.

By addressing the underlying venous insufficiency and improving blood circulation through venous stenting, the physician aims to enhance the healing process in non-healing ulcers. This approach is part of a comprehensive treatment plan designed to address the specific factors contributing to the ulcer's chronicity and promote successful healing.

  • Multidisciplinary Approach
    Collaborative efforts involving healthcare providers from various disciplines, including wound care specialists, vascular surgeons, and nutritionists, can optimize treatment outcomes.

    This comprehensive approach addresses the multifactorial nature of non-healing ulcers and ensures holistic patient care.
  • Wound Care Specialists
    Wound care specialists are healthcare professionals who specialize in the treatment and management of various types of wounds, including ulcers. They have expertise in wound assessment, cleansing, dressing selection, and implementing advanced wound care techniques.
  • Vascular Specialists
    Vascular specialists, such as vascular surgeons or interventional radiologists, focus on diagnosing and treating conditions related to the blood vessels. They can evaluate the vascular health of the affected area and provide interventions, such as venous stenting or arterial procedures, to improve blood flow and promote healing.
  • Dermatologists
    Dermatologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of skin conditions. They can assess the skin around the ulcer, identify any dermatological factors contributing to the non-healing process, and provide appropriate treatments to support wound healing.
  • Endocrinologists
    Endocrinologists specialize in hormonal and metabolic disorders, including diabetes. If the non-healing ulcer is associated with underlying diabetes, an endocrinologist can help manage blood sugar levels, optimize diabetes control, and address any diabetes-related complications that may impede wound healing.
  • Nutritionists/Dietitians
    Nutritionists or dietitians can provide guidance on proper nutrition and dietary choices that support wound healing. They can create personalized meal plans to ensure adequate intake of essential nutrients that promote tissue repair and overall health.
  • Home Remedies

What Are Some Home Remedies?

You should always see a doctor about a severe medical condition. However, there are some things that you can do at home to prevent/treat a leg ulcer.

Use of compression stockings/socks helps to reduce edema and strain on the skin from the increased pressure with swelling

Elevating your legs helps blood circulate back to your heart. When you are sleeping, prop your feet up 6 inches with a pillow. When you are awake, elevate your legs above your heart for 30 minutes and three to four times per day.

Keep the skin of your lower legs clean and well moisturized. Choose a cream/lotion that does not contain alcohol which may cause further drying and cracking of the skin.  Do not apply lotions/creams to any areas of active ulcers unless prescribed.  Avoid any injury to the skin tissues.  Notify your physician if any open sores appear on the skin.

Exercise is also a great way to increase circulation. Try foot and ankle exercises to improve blood flow. Flex your ankles by pointing your toes up and then away from you. You can do this sitting or standing.

Flex up to 10 times and repeat throughout the day.

If you are able, walking is also an effective way to increase circulation in your legs and feet.

How can Vascular Specialists Help
Visiting a vascular specialist for leg ulcer treatment offers numerous benefits and can significantly improve the healing process. Here's a summary of how they can assist and what to expect:

Expert Diagnosis and Evaluation
A vascular specialist is skilled in diagnosing and evaluating the underlying causes of leg ulcers. They will assess your symptoms, medical history, and perform tests like a Doppler study or venogram to identify the root cause. Their specialized knowledge allows them to identify vascular conditions contributing to the ulcer.

Targeted Treatment Plans
Vascular specialists develop personalized treatment plans based on the underlying cause of the leg ulcer. They recommend appropriate interventions such as lifestyle modifications, wound care techniques, compression therapy, or surgical procedures. This tailored approach enhances healing and prevents recurrence.

Advanced procedures
Vascular specialists perform advanced interventions to address underlying vascular issues. Procedures like venous stenting or angioplasty improve blood flow in cases of venous insufficiency or peripheral arterial disease. These interventions restore circulation, promote wound healing, and prevent complications.

By seeking care from a vascular specialist, you can expect comprehensive treatment, regular follow-up, and improved healing outcomes. Their expertise in vascular health, targeted interventions, and ongoing support contribute to better healing and a higher quality of life. Consulting a vascular specialist is a valuable step towards effective leg ulcer treatment and optimal vascular health.

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In the video below Dr. Lakhanpal briefly explains leg ulcers including venous leg ulcers. 

In the video below Dr. Pappas briefly explains common leg ulcers and what vascular conditions cause leg ulcers.